The History Of Poaching Rhinos History Essay

As uncombined of the ultimate prevalent capacity of mega fauna, the snowy rhino is distinctively disclosed by its clear shaped lip that enables it to abrade. At the object of 2007, the Interexoteric Union control the Guardianship of Nature (IUCN) estimated that there were 17 480 of these lewds left, causing them to be classified as neighboring browbeatingened. In the late 3 years, South Africa has suffesanguine the sorrowful privation of 93 snowy rhinos. (Fountain A: http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/Kruger-Park-loses-more-rhinos-20100226 )

These lewds are habitually continueed control their horns, opposing the Convention on Interexoteric Commerce in Objectangesanguine Capacity of Distracted Fauna and Flora (CITES) having nominal any commerce in rhino tonnage control marketable deduces illicit. Thus continueers bear frequentationed to poaching twain snowy and sombre rhinos, frequently using elevated-tech arms and helicopters to object their media. (Fountain E: http://www.traffic.org/home/2009/7/9/poaching-crisis-as-rhino-horn-demand-booms-in-asia.html)

In the condition of negotiative poachers, the succeedingcited interests situate. First, the rhinos are spungent from the intelligence using a low-noise arm, control model a crossbow. The poachers then locate and dislodge twain horns; sometimes the rhinoceros is quiescent food stationary strictly damaged when this happens. Precedently sentrys bear existentised what’s happened, the poachers are in the intelligence anew.

A snowy rhino despatched control its horns in the Kruger Exoteric Limit.

http://blogs.nationalgeographic.com/blogs/news/chiefeditor/white-rhino-poached-for-horn-picture.jpg

Location:

The priority of snowy rhino poaching clears in South Africa interest situate in the Kruger Exoteric Limit (KNP), stationary it is mysterious what the fdisembodiment statistics are.

A map of South Africa indicating the several biomes. The taciturnity is root roughly amid the sanguine lines.

http://www.plantzafrica.com/vegetation/savanna.htm

The Northern Half of the taciturnity is abode to the savannah biome, characterised by hankerer grasses and woody plants . This makes KNP the indeficient habitat control the snowy rhino, a abrader. The limit is earth-renowned and a self-satisfied South African passenger adduction, howincessantly this referable sufficient to generate awareness abextinguished the signification of snowy rhino guardianship.

A map of the Kruger Exoteric Limit and its exoteric limits

http://www.go2africa.com/south-africa/kruger-national-park/maps/134.jpg

This slower of the taciturnity besides shares an Eastern Limit with Mozambique, abode to neighboringly generous of the poachers arrested in 2009. (Fountain C: http://www.krugerpark.co.za/krugerpark-times-e-3-anti-poaching-yield-results-25073.html)

The bigger picture:

In 2007 13 Rhinos were poached in South Africa. In 2009 93 Rhinos were poached in South Africa. The tenor, as symmetrical by Fountain B, is that the despatching entertainment “is no hankerer opportunistic poaching by men-folks stationary carried extinguished by…very-much undulating vicious gangs.”(http://www.rhinoconservation.org/2009/10/14/commercial-rhino-poaching-thrives-in-south-africa-thanks-to-asian-demand-for-rhino-horn/)

This fountain goes on to spread the reargue clearly on the shoulders of Asian countries: “marketable rhino poaching has beseem a courteous-oiled to-bootl – and the ‘newlight Asian wealth’ is bankrolling the not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablewithstandingchery.” However, this does referable defy the poachers themselves.

By July 2009 the South African Exoteric Limits (SAN Limits) not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableifyed that 32 snowy rhinos had been poached in the Kruger Limit. Of these, 28 had been despatched parallel the Mozambican limit. Generous uncombined uncombined of the 14 mistrusts arrested are Mozambican citizens. (Fountain C: http://www.krugerpark.co.za/krugerpark-times-e-3-anti-poaching-yield-results-25073.html)

Fountain D goes on to assert that regulation enforcement professionals in Mozambique are referable doing sufficient to plug the poaching. “Referable a uncombined poacher arrested in Mozambique control despatching a rhino has guncombined through the unmeasured regularity prescribed by guardianship regulation.” The age not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableifys that referable a uncombined poacher arrested by Kruger Limit professionals was jailed control hankerer than couple weeks. In uncombined clear, poachers lower obligation control commerce in R1,5 pet were ostentatiousd a pure R1250 and released. In another condition, a poacher with “a freedom-fighting fact and obstruct ties with politicians and police” was released from prison withextinguished a ostentatious, uncombined week succeeding entity arrested in KNP. (http://hughpaxton.wordpress.com/2010/01/27/more-on-rhino-poaching-the-mozambique-connection/)

From 1977 to 1992 Mozambique demolish into a political campaign that infirm its distribution and left its fellow-creatures faded.

Graph 1: Mozambique’s annual GDP in bearing to that of Southern Africa, and Africa as a sound.

http://www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/uploads/tx_llaeocountries/Mozambique1.jpg

With a Gross Domiciliary Product of deduceable balance $1000 Purchasing Power Parity (USD PPP), it follows as no alarm that Mozambicans would frequentation to poaching, or that the incessantlyyowable classification is to-boot debile to investigate them. However, it is practicable that divers would choose the illicit commerce in rhino horn to pastre result.

As slower of the anti-poaching guideship in Kenya, this gather of ivory and rhino horn was burnt to generate common awareness

http://www.safariweb.com/safarimate/trial2/ivory.jpg

At November 25, 2009, the sombre chaffer estimate of rhino horn was professionally expressive than that of gold, as symmetrical in Fountain G (http://news.mongabay.com/2009/1126-hance_rhino_gold.html) .

Table 1: Approximate Sombre Chaffer estimates of rhino horn and gold per kilogram at November 2009

Commodity

Price ($) per kilogram (kg)

Gold

60 000

Rhino horn

40 600

However, it is expressive to referablee that insufficiency can besides be root with South Africans.

2008 Minister of Environmental Affairs, Marthinus front Schalkwyk, not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableifyd that men-folks with operative continueing permits were abusing their permits to commerce illicitly in rhino horn. As symmetrical in Fountain F:

“During investigations into rhino horn dispenses, enforcement professionals had root that prospective continueers had applied control permits to continue rhino in several provinces, and these had astern been consequenced. Stationary the continues had nincessantly interestn situate and the applicable authorities had nincessantly been assured.” (http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1HYPERLINK “http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=139&art_id=vn20080609114119227C941799″&HYPERLINK “http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=139&art_id=vn20080609114119227C941799″click_id=139HYPERLINK “http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=139&art_id=vn20080609114119227C941799″&HYPERLINK “http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=139&art_id=vn20080609114119227C941799″art_id=vn20080609114119227C941799)

The age goes on to incessantlyyege Democratic Generousiance (DA) environmental spokesperson Gareth Morgan in asserting that “the South African Synod is quiescent referable preliminary sustainable crop seriously.” (http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1HYPERLINK “http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=139&art_id=vn20080609114119227C941799″&HYPERLINK “http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=139&art_id=vn20080609114119227C941799″click_id=139HYPERLINK “http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=139&art_id=vn20080609114119227C941799″&HYPERLINK “http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=139&art_id=vn20080609114119227C941799″art_id=vn20080609114119227C941799)

Furthermore, in conducting this not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableify I bear follow to existentise that most South Africans vision poaching as colossus of the late or colossus scant to North Africa and Asia. Thus the pledge of the snowy rhino has amply fallen on averse ears. The inexperiment of the fellow-creatures who remain to betray the most has arguen a expressive browbeating to snowy and sombre rhinos than poachers.

Main sorrows:

Ethical

Southern snowy rhinos are despatched with immense relentlessness. Precedently colonisation it was the unwritten exercise amongst most African tribes to honor distracted morals, this was emphasised by using generous slower of an lewd that was continueed. Today, the earth narrowly interests a remain when “cute” distracted lewds or domiciliary lewds are abused.

Furthermore, the flippancy with which poachers subascribable the regulation suggests accomplished inattention control lewd morals. As symmetrical by Fountain D: “divers mistrusts are cite offenders.” (http://hughpaxton.wordpress.com/2010/01/27/more-on-rhino-poaching-the-mozambique-connection/)

Economic

The most-raging sombre chaffer estimate of rhino horn argues that this is a rare stock. However, this narrowly seems to acception ask-restraint and abundance of poaching.

In observation, SAN Limits pledged R5,2 pet to anti-poaching strategies amid KNP (Fountain C: http://www.krugerpark.co.za/krugerpark-times-e-3-anti-poaching-yield-results-25073.html). As the post escalates, expressive donations get be requisanguine which could argue to be a restraintmal object occasion the earth recovers from the economic recession.

Legal

The insufficiency of Mozambican authorities to investigate poachers has instilled hesitate in the foul province. Bearings among South Africa and this neighbour bear beseem clouded with distrust as KNP amusement sentrys mistrust strict decay amid the Mozambican incessantlyyowable classification. (Fountain D: http://hughpaxton.wordpress.com/2010/01/27/more-on-rhino-poaching-the-mozambique-connection/)

Environmental

A northern capacity of snowy rhino is feasanguine extinct. Sombre rhinos are neighboring extinct. How hanker precedently there are no aggravate of these miraculous creatures are left in the earth?

Who plays the largest roles?

The sentrys of the Kruger Exoteric Limit, the Earth Distractedmorals Rootation Interexoteric (WWF), the IUCN, TRAFFIC (affiliated distractedmorals commerce monitoring netresult of the IUCN), CITES, the Saving Rhinos guideship, the Rhino Guardianship guideship, and the South African Police Employments (SAPS) bear thus distant played the principal role in physically compensating the southern snowy rhino and creating awareness respecting the poaching emergency.

(Fountain E: http://www.traffic.org/home/2009/7/9/poaching-crisis-as-rhino-horn-demand-booms-in-asia.html)

However, this get referable be sufficient withextinguished the co-operation and abettance of the South African common. Furthermore, aggravate efforts such as this uncombined by the Saving Rhinos guideship should be made in Asia:

An advertisement by the Saving Rhinos guideship aimed at educating the common.

http://www.savingrhinos.org/images/Rhino-species-sizes.jpg

Co-operation and abettance is besides needed from lewd hues organisations such as PETA (Fellow-creatures control the Ethical Treatment of Lewds) and the Synods of Mozambique, Vietnam, The Fellow-creatures’s Recommon of China and Thailocate in prescribe to waste the chaffer control rhino horn.

Solutions prevalently in situate:

According to Fountain A, prevalent Environmental Affairs Minister Buyelwa Sonjica has balanceseen the implementation of the succeedingcited “sustainable steps” to checkmate poaching in KNP:

The observation of 58 sentrys in the limit, fetching the completion reckon to 350

19 Motorbikes bear been meritd control the sentrys control faithfulness in wardens

The merit of elevated-tech mystification vision equipment control faithfulness by SAN Limits Intelligence Employment

The observation of an ultra-light intelligencecraft control faithfulness in wardens

The South African Exoteric Deprotect Controlce (SANDF) has interestn balance from the South African Police Employment (SAPS) in wardenling the Mozambique/ KNP limit.

(http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/Kruger-Park-loses-more-rhinos-20100226 )

Solutions that should be in considered:

At this range Mozambican poachers arrested on their exoteric tarnish are referable efficiently investigated, thus poachers should be arrested and investigated in South Africa as distant as practicable.

Brian Jones of Moholoholo Distractedmorals Rehabilitation Centre has said from experiment that South Africans food encircling KNP reach very protective balance “their” distractedlife. Furthermore, the persomals are very vehement abextinguished fetching an object to poaching. By employing these persomals as sentrys and Limit Warden Professionals, SAN Limits get referable narrowly be sanguineucing unemployment statistics (plain if narrowly minimally) stationary getting the common compromised where they frequently deppurpose a unseeing glance.

Imploring the Synods of Asian countries to train their fellow-creatures abextinguished the result of rhino poaching and the faithfulness rearwards the “medicinal estimates” of rhino horn.

Addendum

SOURCE A:

Kruger Limit betrays aggravate rhinos

2010-02-26 22:09

Cape Town – Eight aggravate snowy rhinos bear been despatched by poachers in the Kruger Exoteric Limit, opposing the deployment of elevated-tech equipment and extra sentrys at so-called “pungent spots” amid the flagship taciturnity.

In a written rejoinder to a parliamentary inquiry, Environmental Affairs Minister Buyelwa Sonjica said “eight snowy rhinos, couple impalas and a zebra” were poached in January this year, compasanguine to “splain snowy rhinos, couple impalas and uncombined kudu” during the corresponding month the year precedently.

Her rejoinder contains details of “sustainable steps interestn” to control poaching in the limit that apprehends:

– the deployment of 58 oddlightlight province sentrys – preliminary the completion reckon of sentrys to 350 – to poaching pungent spots;

– the merit of 19 motorbikes to succor with wardens;

– the merit of oddlightlight mystification-vision equipment control faithfulness by miscellany of the SANParks Intelligence Employment individual’s couple helicopters; and

– the merit of another ultra-light intelligencecraft, fetching the completion to couple, control faithfulness in anti-poaching operations. The intelligence employment individual besides has three fixed-wing intelligencecraft.

Dramatic rise

Sonjica said the SA Exoteric Deprotect Controlce would interest balance from the SA Police Employment in wardenling the limit’s interexoteric limit with Mozambique “during the posterior sunder” of this year.

Balance the late couple years, the reckon of rhinos poached in the Kruger, and in other taciturnitys encircling the province, has vertical dramatically.

On January 22, SANParks primary constabulary dignitary David Mabunda said in a not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableifyment that at ultimate 14 rhinos had been poached past the set-on-foot of the year, splain in the Kruger and splain in the North West.

This brought the completion reckon of rhinos despatched in the late three years to 93. There had been 48 arrests made balance this duration.

Mabunda said at the age that plans to fetch the soldierlike to warden the Kruger’s limit with Mozambique were at an delayed range.

– SAPA

————————————————————————————————————————–

SOURCE B:

14 Oct 09

Marketable Rhino Poaching Thrives in South Africa, Thanks to Asian Ask-restraint control Rhino Horn

Well-funded poaching syndicates are cashing in on Asia’s ask-restraint control rhino horn – and jeopardizing decades of rhino guardianship efforts in South Africa.

The deduce rearwards the prevalent 15-year elevated in rhino poaching is no hankerer a enigma or “baffling” to experts: It is fueled by the ravenous ask-fors of a oddlightly luscious – and increasing – population in Asia.

Marketable rhino poaching has beseem a courteous-oiled to-bootl – and the “newlight Asian wealth” is bankrolling the not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablewithstandingchery.

Today’s rhino poachers

Heavily funded, politically united, and courteous-armed, today’s rhino poachers faithfulness helicopters to flit into Africa’s amusement taciturnitys to despatch rhino with the purposeing elevated-powesanguine arms.

In a late Guardian age, primary constabulary of the Objectangesanguine Distractedmorals Trust, Yolan Friedmann, said the middle reckon of rhino despatched has skyrocketed from 10 to 100 year-by-year.

There has been a furious acception in South Africa. Poaching emblems control this year bear already surpassed the sound of ultimate year. It’s probably the surpass it’s been control 15 years. There’s a doom aggravate specie going into poaching and it’s fit aggravate hi-tech. It’s no hankerer deduceable a object with a fawn and arrow wading through the bush. These guys are using helicopters and AK-47 rifles.

Opposing the uninterruptedly prosperous Save the Rhino plan, rhinos are lower bombardment. South Africa is confrontment a emergency. We’ve duncombined most-violently courteous in rhino guardianship, stationary colossus has fantasticfangled in the late 18 months, there’s an ravenous tendency control rhino horn in the distant east.

Cathy Dean, ruler of Save the Rhino Interdiplomatic, asserts in the age that the surge in poaching is a browbeating to years of hard-earned victory in rhino guardianship.

The gains of the ultimate decade are in existent peril. The lowerlying sorrow is that this upsurge in rhino poaching – a important consequence in Zimbabwe as courteous as South Africa – is no hankerer opportunistic poaching by men-folks stationary carried extinguished by … elevatedly undulating vicious gangs.

So distant this year, 84 rhino bear been despatched in South Africa. In 2007, the reckon was 13.

Unfortunately, marketable rhino poaching has beseem widespread: Zimbabwe’s rhino population is besides denial at the hands of a politically united poaching cartel that fulfills “orders” from Chinese exoterics control rhino horn.

And illicit despatching isn’t the narrowly practice rhino horn enters Asia’s young objectangesanguine capacity chafferplace.

http://www.rhinoconservation.org/2009/10/14/commercial-rhino-poaching-thrives-in-south-africa-thanks-to-asian-demand-for-rhino-horn/

————————————————————————————————————————–

SOURCE C:

Escalated anti poaching actions set-on-footing to submit results

South African Exoteric Limits (SANParks) not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableifyd precedent this months that aggravate poachers bear been apprehended in late weeks ascribable to the acceptiond efforts to impression down on poaching of rhino and other elevated estimate distractedmorals in the Kruger Exoteric Limit. In July 2009 SANParks not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableifyd that the organisation had obsolete 26 snowy rhino and uncombined sombre rhino to poaching and an adventitious 10.3kg of rhino horn through a raging spoliation in the Addo Elephant Exoteric Limit.

“It is with seriousness that we not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableify that past our not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableifyment at the object of July we bear obsolete a splain snowy rhino to poachers. However, the principal oddlights to follow extinguished of these trivial activities is that SANParks has past apprehended another six mistrusted rhino poachers and the restitution of five illicit firearms,” said Dr David Mabunda, the primary constabulary of SANParks.

The oddlightlight arrests fetch the reckon of arrested mistrusts to 14, with 11 recovesanguine illicit firearms. Dr Mabunda said that what is frightful abextinguished this advice is that of the 33 rhinos (including 1 sombre rhino) poached this year 28 of them were illicitly despatched parallel the eastern proviso with Mozambique and generous the 14 mistrusts arrested thus distant were of Mozambican spring.

‘We intobject to acception our efforts plain aggravate in ensuring that this punishment is routed extinguished. Discussions bear been set-on-footed with Mozambican authorities to urge their abettance in apprehending mistrusts and checkmateing illicit activities from proliferating on their edge of the protect,” said Dr Mabunda.

SANParks has pledged a consolidate of R5.2 pet from its Limit Crop Fund which is aimed at decorous anti-poaching interventions in the KNP. The funds are entity faithfulnessd control increasing the reckon of province sentrys by 57 fellow-creatures as courteous as buying aggravate vehicles and a recite of the Crime Advice Objectagement Classification.

————————————————————————————————————————–

SOURCE D:

Rhino not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablewithstandingchery continues

YOLANDI GROENEWALD – Jan 15 2009 05:00

The illicit not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablewithstandingchery of at ultimate 12 rhinos balance the gay season fetchs the reckon of the lewds poached in South Africa in the late year obstruct to 100. The rising departure duty follows amid generousegations that Mozambican authorities are referable doing sufficient to chip down on disclosed mistrusts and, in some conditions, capability be consentaneously the poachers.

Another couple rhino departures in Mpumalanga bear been not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableifyed stationary referable aged – some amusement taciturnitys are backward to observe on such despatchings. If the emblem is ampurpose it would dispose the titular departure duty of rhinos poached in South Africa past January ultimate year at 96. The heavy lewds apprehpurpose critically objectangesanguine sombre rhinos.

An Mpumalanga sentry who has tracked poaching athwart South Africa’s limit into Mozambique said the province’s regulation enforcement insufficiencys were contributing to the tenor.

“Referable a uncombined poacher arrested in Mozambique control despatching a rhino has guncombined through the unmeasured regularity prescribed by the guardianship regulation,” the investigator said. “Unfortunately, the Mozambican congress canreferable dispense with new poaching methods and this is entity exploited by the poaching lords.”

He said divers mistrusts are cite offenders who solely redeppurpose to poaching. And plain if they sharp-purpose extinguished their handlers the handlers can solely stable a ostentatious if they are incessantly arrested.

No poachers arrested in Mozambique control offences in the Kruger limit and Mozambique’s Sabie Amusement Limit bear been jailed control hankerer than couple weeks. “This apprehends offenders who bear been apprehended twice control correspondent offences,” the investigator said.

A not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableify he has drawn up reveals that poachers despatched at ultimate 43 rhinos among January 2004 and July 2008 in the Kruger limit and encircling its limit. Though the Kruger limit would referable afford professional emblems, the Mail & Guardian lowerstands that aggravate than 40 rhinos were spungent there among January and the object of November ultimate year.

In divers conditions Mozambicans, generousegedly assiduous by Vietnamese syndicates clear extinguished of South Africa, are the excellent mistrusts. The syndicates are said to afford their persomal recruits with elevated-calibre arms. Crossbows are besides faithfulnessd becafaithfulness they are dormant.

The investigator said that a association guide from Mozambique’s Limpopo Exoteric Limit had spungent rhinos in the Kruger Exoteric Limit on three opposed occasions. Kruger regulation enforcers pursued him into Mozambique, where he was arrested each age, stationary on generous three occasions the conditions were either referable finalised or no passage was loving.

When the poacher balmy his consummation a fourth age he was apprehended on South African tarnish. The investigator said that South Africa’s regulations should secure that he is interestn “extinguished of the poaching classification”.

In another condition in 2007 five rhinos were spungent on the limit of the Kruger limit, in Mozambique. A undertaking team comprising the Mozambican limit police and staff from Kruger and Sabie Amusement Limit arrested couple mistrusts parallel with elevated-calibre arms, the tracking equipment and binoculars. The investigator said the mistrusts and the attraction were handed balance to the police chief in Moamba, Mozambique.

Stationary the investigator besides sent learning abextinguished the condition to the exoteric synod in Maputo becafaithfulness he felt Moamba police had bungled preceding conditions. In observation, he met with police guides in Maputo and lofty the bankruptcy of scout tonnage in Moamba. Opposing his efforts, he said, the couple mistrusts were solely ostentatiousd R1 250 and released.

“The ostentatious should bear been at ultimate R1,5-pet if it was appropriately defyd and own channels followed,” he said. “The horns were desert at ultimate R1,5-million.”

The investigator said he mistrusted that some of the police in Moamba were profligate and actually assisted the poachers. In uncombined condition the spectry of the poachers’ handler was obtained and the object was arrested. Stationary the mistrust has a freedom-fighting fact and obstruct ties with politicians and the police, the investigator said. Amid uncombined week he was released and South African investigators think he did referable plain stable a ostentatious.

The Mozambican police had referable responded to emailed inquirys by the age of going to print. Carlos Follow, a ruler in the Mozambican police, purely observeed that knee commissions among South Africa and Mozambique had been dispose in situate to succor Mozambique with its challenges.