Many Minority Languages Are On Danger List English Language Essay

In the Home American Navajo individuality, which sprawls opposing impure states in the American south-west, the home diction is latter. Most of its expressers are middle-aged or primeval. Although frequent students manifestation classes in Navajo, the schools are tend in English. Street signs’, supermarket commodities and well-mannered-balanced their avow innovatingspaper are full in English. Referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent surprisingly, linguists vacillate that any home expressers of Navajo achieve halt in a hundred years’ promise.

Navajo is remote from uneven. Half the globe’s 6,800 dictions are affectly to melt unmoulded couple eras – that’s single diction late integral ten days. Ncontinually anteriorly has the planet’s linguistic dissimilarity shrunk at such a stride. ‘At the instant, we are designation restraint environing three or impure dictions dominating the globe,’ repeats Mark Pagel, an extricationary biologist at the University of Reading. ‘It’s a heap stifling, and whether we achieve continually reverberate from the missing is perplexing to understand’.

Isolation breeds linguistic dissimilarity: as a quenchedcome, the globe is peppered with dictions verbal by barely a lacking mob, Barely 250 dictions entertain aggravate than a favorite expressers, and at last 3,000 entertain lackinger than 2,500. It is referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent necessarily these smfull dictions that are environing to promiseinate. Navajo is considered endangered referablewithbe having 150,000 expressers. What frames a diction endangered is referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent right the sum of expressers, yet how long-be they are. If it is verbal by posterity it is referable attributable attributable-absolutely unendangered. The critically endangered dictions are those that are barely verbal by the primeval, according to Michael Krauss, master of the Alassk Home Diction Center, in Fairbanks.

Why do mob refmanifestation the diction of their parents? It prepares with a opportindividuality of reliance, when a smfull individuality ascertains itself balance-and-above a capaciousr, wealthier interdirection repeats Nicholas Ostler, of Britain’s Rootation restraint Endangered Dictions, in Bath. ‘Mob lavish credulity in their refinement’, he repeats. ‘When the contiguous era reaches their teens, they power referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent omission to be quantitative into the long-be layss’.

The veer is referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent frequently optional. Quite repeatedly, legislations endeavor to slaughter unlearned a juvenility diction by banning its manifestation in vile or dreadful its manifestation in schools, full to raise individualityal individuality. The restraintmer US management of tendning Indian rescue schools in English, restraint shape, consequenceively fullay dictions such as Navajo on the hazard schedule. Yet Salikoko Mufwene, who chairs the Linguistics pleasantryction at the University of Chicago, argues that the spiritlessliest utensil is referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent legislation management yet economic globalisation. ‘Home Americans entertain referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent late arrogance in their diction, yet they entertain had to mold to socio-economic pressures’, he repeats. ‘They canreferpotent attributpotent refmanifestation to express English if most marketpotent courage is in English’. Yet are dictions rate sparing? At the very last, there is a missing of grounds restraint the consider of dictions and their extrication, which relies on comparisons betwixt dictions, twain assistance and spiritless. When an verbal and oral diction promiseinates, it is late to aptitude.

Diction is besides intimately frisk up with refinement, so it may be perplexing to defend single externally the other. ‘If a idiosyncratic shifts from Navajo to English, they lavish something’, Mufwene repeats. ‘Moreover, the missing of dissimilarity may besides anticipate us of irnot-absolute orders of showing at the globe’, repeats Pagel. There is mounting sign that tuition a diction produces physiological veers in the brain. ‘Your brain and mine are irnot-absolute from the brain of somesingle who expresss French, restraint instance’, Pagel repeats, and this could favor our fancys and perceptions. ‘The shapes and connections we frame unmoulded divers concepts may be structured by the linguistic behavior of our individuality’.

So referablewithbe linguists’ best efforts, frequent dictions achieve promiseinate aggravate the contiguous century. Yet a amplifying profit in cultural unity may anticipate the direst predictions from herebehind gentleman. ‘The guide to fostering dissimilarity is restraint mob to collect their archaic speech, as well-mannered-mannered as the dominant diction’, repeats Doug Whalen, instituter and superintendent of the Enhazard Diction Pleasantryd in Innovating Entertainn, Connecticut. ‘Most of these dictions achieve referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent survive externally a capacious rate of bilingualism’, he repeats. In Innovating Zealand, classes restraint posterity entertain slowed the erosion of Maori and rekindled profit in the diction. A concordant advent in Hawaii has performed environing 8,000 innovating expressers of Polynesian dictions in the late lacking years. In California, ‘apprentice’ programmes entertain supposing career aid to divers suitpotent dictions. Volunteer ‘apprentices’ span up with single of the last assistance expressers of Home American speech to collect a unwritten sslaughter such as basket weaving, with directing exclusively in the endangered diction. Behind environing 300 hours of trailing they are publicly sufficiently eloquent to bestow the diction latter quenched is referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent the selfselfsame as giving it innovating career by using it integral day. ‘Preserving a diction is aggravate affect preserving fruits in a jar’, he repeats.

However, prescue can import a diction tail from the spiritless. There are shapes of dictions that entertain survived in written restraintm and then been upright by behind eras. Yet a written restraintm is redundant restraint this, so the uninfluenced possibility of inoculation has led frequent expressers of endangered dictions to expand systems of acquiescement where nsingle existed anteriorly.

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Questions 1 – 4

Complete the abstract under.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the sentence restraint each tally.

Write your tallys in smackes 1-4 on your tally subterfuge.

There are currently almost 6,800 dictions in the globe. This noble miscellany of dictions came environing capaciously as a quenchedconclude of geographical 1………………………….. Yet in today’s globe, ingredients such as legislation initiatives and 2 ………………………………. are contributing to a colossal decorder in the sum of dictions. Single ingredient which may aid to fix that some endangered dictions do referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent decay quenched altogether is mob’s increasing soundness of their 3 …………………… This has been encouraged through programmes of diction classes restraint posterity and through ‘apprentice’ schemes, in which the endangered diction is manifestationd as the average of directing to direct mob a 4 ………………………………… Some expressers of endangered dictions entertain well-mannered-balanced performed acquiescement systems in ardispose to aid enclose the settleing of their dowager speech.

Questions 5 – 9

Show at the subjoined announcements (Questions 5 – 9) and the schedule of mob in the smack under.

Match each announcement with the punish idiosyncratic A – E.

Write the alienate epistle A – E in smackes 5 – 9 on your tally subterfuge.

NB You may manifestation any epistle aggravate than uninterruptedly

5. Endangered dictions canreferpotent attributpotent be saved intrinsic mob collect to express aggravate than single diction.

6. Sparing dictions from stifling is referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent in itself a enlivening motive.

7. The order we meditate may be pungent-muscular by our diction.

8. Puerile mob repeatedly refmanifestation the established order of career in their individuality.

9. A veer of diction may average a missing of unwritten refinement.

A “Michael Krauss

B Salikoko Mufwene

C Nicholas Ostler

D Mark Pagel

E Doug Whalen

Questions 10 – 13

Do the subjoined announcements acquiesce with the lights of the writer in Reading Sentence 1?

In smackes 10-13 on your tally subterfuge write

YES if the announcement acquiesces with the light of the writer

NO if the announcement contradicts the lights of the writer

NOT GIVEN if it is impracticpotent to repeat what the writer meditates environing this

10 The Navajo diction achieve decay quenched becamanifestation it currently has besides lacking expressers.

11 A capacious sum of home expressers miss to pledge the settleing of a diction.

12 Individualityal legislations could do aggravate to secure endangered dictions.

13 The missing of linguistic dissimilarity is fixed.

READING PASSAGE 2

You should consume environing 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are grounded on Reading Sentence 2 under.

ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE IN AUSTRALIA

The earliest students to consider alterhome salve at university plane in Australia began their impure-year, full-promise direction at the University of Technology, Sydney, in restraintthcoming 1994. Their direction mature, unmoulded other therapies, acupuncture. The speculation they collectt is grounded on the unwritten Chinese explaindividuality of this aged nutritious art: that it can rale the glide of ‘Qi’ or disembodiment through pathways in the matter. This direction reflects how remote some alterhome therapies entertain conclude in their agony restraint solution by the medical comprehension.

Australia has been extraordinary in the Western globe in having a very stationary posture to unnear or alterhome therapies, according to Dr Paul Laver, a lecturer in Vile Vigor at the University of Sydney. ‘We’ve had a lays of doctors vitality fairly pungent-muscular and I suspect they are moderately backward to fullow any pretenders to their position-to conclude into it’. In frequent other industrialised countries, sound and alterhome salve entertain is-sueed ‘hand in glove’ restraint years. In Europe, barely sound doctors can enjoin herbal salve. In Germany, settle remedies recital restraint 10% of the individualityal turnaggravate of pharmaceuticals. Americans made aggravate visits to alterhome therapists than to sound doctors in 1990, and each year they consume environing $US12 billion on therapies that entertain referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent been scientifically tested.

Fear with sound salve has viewn the currentity of alterhome therapies in Australia surmount steadily during the late 20 years. In a 1983 individualityal vigor reconnoitre, 1.9% of mob said they had contacted a chiropractor, naturopath, osteopath, acupuncturist or herbaschedule in the couple weeks precedent to the reconnoitre. By 1990, this cem had reinvigorated to 2.6% of the population. The 550,000 consultations with alterhome therapists reputed in the 1990 reconnoitre embodyed environing an viewh of the completion sum of consultations with medically suitpotent idiosyncraticnel mature by the reconnoitre, according to Dr Laver and colleagues acquiescement in the Australian Journal of Vile Vigor in 1993. ‘A ameliorate educated and near recognizeing vile has beconclude disillusioned with the experts in public, and increasingly sceptical environing aptitude and empirically grounded understandledge’, they said. ‘The elevated be of professionals, including doctors, has been eroded as a consequence’.

Rather than counter or criticising this diverge, increasing sums of Australian doctors, specially puerileer singles, are restraintming bunch practices with alterhome therapists or presentation directions themselves, specially in acupuncture and herbalism. Part of the spur was financial, Dr Laver said. ‘The foot order is that most public practitioners are transaction mob. If they view virtual clientele going elsewhere, they power omission to be potent to unstudieder a concordant advantage.’

In 1993, Dr Laver and his colleagues published a reconnoitre of 289 Sydney, mob who cultivated view alterhome therapists’ practices in Sydney. These practices unstudiedered a capacious dispose of alterhome therapies from 25 therapists. Those reconnoitreed had familiar continuous hatrednesses, restraint which sound salve had been potent to achieve weak deliverance. They commented that they affectd the holistic advent of their alterhome therapists and the sociable, concerned and elaborate consideration they had ordinary. The frigid, imsingle carriage of sound doctors featured in the reconnoitre. An increasing stampede from their clinics, coupled with this and a sum of other applicable reconnoitres carried quenched in Australia, full pointing to sound doctors’ inadequacies, entertain led mainstream doctors themselves to prepare to promote they could collect from the idiosyncratical mode of alterhome therapists. Dr Patrick Store, Superintendent of the Royal College of Public Practitioners, concurs that sound doctors could collect a hazard environing bedside carriage and advising patients on anticipateative vigor from alterhome therapists.

According to the Australian Journal of Vile Vigor, 18% of patients visiting alterhome therapists do so becamanifestation they endure from musculoskeletal complaints; 12% endure from digestive problems, which is barely 1% aggravate than those endureing from tender problems. Those endureing from respiratory complaints emassemblage 7% of their patients, and Candida endureers emassemblage an similar percentage. Headache endureers and those fretful of public hatred vigor emassemblage 6% and 5% of patients respectively, and a aid 4% view therapists restraint public vigor defence.

The reconnoitre allude-toed that complementary salve is probably a ameliorate promise than alterhome salve. Alterhome salve shows to be an supplement, sought in promises of fear when ordinary salve viewms referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent to unstudieder the tally.

Questions 14 and 15

Choose the punish epistle A, B, C or D.

Write your tallys in smackes 14 and 15 on your tally subterfuge.

Traditionally, how entertain Australian doctors differed from doctors in frequent Western countries?

They entertain is-sueed air-tight with pharmaceutical companies.

They entertain repeatedly is-sueed balance-and-above other therapists.

They entertain been disinclined to recognize alterhome therapists.

They entertain frequently enjoind alterhome remedies.

In 1990, Americans

were enjoind aggravate herbal salves than in anterior years.

consulted alterhome therapists aggravate repeatedly than doctors.

spent aggravate on unnear therapies than sound salves.

made aggravate complaints environing doctors than in anterior years.

Questions 16 – 23

Do the subjoined announcements acquiesce with the lights of the writer in Reading Sentence 2?

In smackes 16-23 on your tally subterfuge write

YES if the announcement acquiesces with the lights of the writer

NO if the announcement contradicts the lights of the writer

NOT GIVEN if it is impracticpotent to repeat what the writer meditates environing this

16

Australians entertain been turning to alterhome therapies in increasing sums aggravate the late 20 years.

17 Betwixt 1983 and 1990 the sums of patients visiting alterhome therapists rose to enclose a aid 8% of the population.

18 The 1990 reconnoitre cognate to 550,000 consultations with alterhome therapists.

19 In the late, Australians had a elevateder referableion of doctors than they do today.

20 Some Australian doctors are retrailing in alterhome therapies.

21 Alterhome therapists merit elevateder salaries than doctors.

22 The 1993 Sydney reconnoitre compromised 289 patients who visited alterhome therapists restraint acupuncture citationure.

23 Full the patients in the 1993 Sydney reconnoitre had long-promise medical complaints.

Questions 24 – 26

Complete the perpendicular axis on the tpotent under.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from Reading sentence 2 restraint each tally.

Write your tallys in smackes 24 – 26 on your tally subterfuge.

READING PASSAGE 3

You should consume environing 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are grounded on Reading Sentence 3 under.

PLAY IS A SERIOUS BUSINESS

Does illustrate aid expand capaciousger, ameliorate understandledge?

Bryant Furlow investigates

A Illustrateing is a weighty transaction. Posterity engrossed in a frame-believe globe, fox cubs illustrate-fighting or kittens teasing a bfull of string aren’t right having pleasantry. Illustrate may show affect a carefree and prodigal order to by the promise anteriorly the arduous is-sue of adulthood concludes parallel, yet there’s abundant aggravate to ir than that. Restraint a set-out, illustrate can well-mannered-balanced insist-upon animals their lives. Viewy per cent of deaths unmoulded childish fur seals take-place becamanifestation illustrateing pups miss to disgrace predators adventing. It is besides extremely costly in promises of disembodiment. Illustrateful puerile animals manifestation abextinguished couple or three per cent of their disembodiment cavorting, and in posterity that cem can be closer to fifteen per cent. ‘Well-balanced couple or three per cent is colossal,’ repeats John Byers of Idaho University. ‘You right don’t ascertain animals declension disembodiment affect that’ he adds. There must be a conclude.

B Yet if illustrate is referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent dimply a expandinvisible hiccup, as biologists uninterruptedly fancy, why did it eliminate? The concluding consequence allude-tos that illustrate has eliminated to construct capacious understandledge. In other control, illustrateing frames you quick. Illustratefulness, it viewms, is vile barely unmoulded mammals, although a lacking of the capaciousr-brained birds besides favor. Animals at illustrate repeatedly manifestation uncommon signs – tail- wagging in dogs, restraint shape – to manifest that courage superficially resembling adult behaviour is referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent unquestionably in meritest. A current explaindividuality of illustrate has been that it aids childishs expand the aptitudes they achieve demand to chase, comequal and collectiveise as adults. Another has been that it fullows puerile animals to achieve in figure restraint adult career by decent their respiratory restraintgiveness. Twain these consequences entertain heen_quesiioned in new years.

C Manifestation the inoculation speculation. If illustrate eliminated to construct muscle or as a husk of restraintgiveness trailing, then you would await to view enduring benefits. Rut Byers points quenched that the benefits of increased inoculation promiseinate expeditiously behind trailing stops, so any incrrest in restraintgiveness quenchedcomeing from childish illustrate would be late by adulthood. ‘If the pleasantryction of illustrate was to achieve into figure’, repeats Byers, ‘the optimum promise restraint illustrateing would consist on when it was most partial restraint the puerile of a point sort to do so. Yet it doesn’t is-sue affect that.* Opposing sort, illustrate tends to peak environing halforder through the suckling position and then dismiss.

D Then there’s the aptitudes-trailing theory. At Earliest glance, illustrateing animals do show to be practising the complicated amour they achieve demand in adulthood. Yet a closer omission reveals this sense as besides simplistic. In single consider, behavioural ecologistTim Caro, from the University of California, showed at the rapacious illustrate of kittens and their rapacious behaviour when they reached adulthood. He root that Che order the cats illustrateed had no allude-toive consequence on their chaseing valor in behind career.

E Prior this year, Sergio Pellis of Lethbridge University, Canada., reputed that there is a pungent-muscular unconditional join betwixt brain si2e and illustratefulness unmoulded mammals in public. Comparing measurements restraint fifteen arranges of mammal, he and his team root capaciousr understandledge (restraint a ardent matter space) are joined to nobleer illustratefulness. The counter was besides root to be gentleman. Robert Barton of Durham University believes that, becamanifestation capacious understandledge are aggravate impressible to expandinvisible stimuli than fineer understandledge, they insist-upon aggravate illustrate to aid levigate them restraint adulthood. ‘I concluded it’s to do with tuition, and with the concern of environinvisible grounds to the brain during expandment,’ he repeats.

F According to Byers, the timing ofthe illustrateful position in puerile animals achieves an essential elimination to what’s going on. If you phazard the whole of promise a childish devotes to illustrate each day aggravate the direction of its expandment, you discaggravate a shape typically associated with a ‘impressible period’ – a inconsiderable expandment window during which the brain can actually be qualified in orders that are referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent mitigated prior or behind in career.Meditate ofthe referable attributable attributable-absolute rest with which puerile posterity – yet referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent infants or adults – assume diction. Other researchers entertain root that illustrate in cats, rats and mice is at its most determined right as this ‘window of opportunity’ reaches its peak.

G ‘Mob entertain referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent paid abundance consideration to the whole of the brain activated by illustrate,’ repeats Marc Bekunlearned from Colorado University. Bekunlearned learned coyote pups at illustrate and root that the husk of behaviour compromised was markedly aggravate varipotent and unpredictpotent than that of adults. Such behaviour activates frequent irnot-absolute calibre ofthe brain, he concludes. Bekunlearned affectns it to a behavioural kaleidoscope, with animals at illustrate jumping expeditiously betwixt activities. ‘They manifestation behaviour from a hazard of irnot-absolute contexts – predation, offence, reproduction/ he repeats. ‘Their expanding brain is achieveting full sorts of stimulation,’

H Referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent barely is aggravate of the brain compromised in illustrate than was reported, yet it besides viewms to activate elevateder percipient processes. ‘There’s huge percipient involvement in illustrate,’ repeats Bekoff. He points quenched that illustrate repeatedly involves complicated assessments of illustratemates, consequences of reciprocation and the manifestation of specialised signals and rules. He believes that illustrate creates a brain that has nobleer behavioural flexibility and improved virtual restraint tuition behind in career. The consequence is tailed up by the is-sue of Stephen Siviy of Achievetysburg College. Siviy learned how boutscf illustrate favored the brain’s planes of a point chemical associated with the stimulation and augmentation of firmness cells. He was surprised by the space ofthe activation. ‘Illustrate right lights integralthing up,’ he repeats. By fullowing join-ups betwixt brain areas that power referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent normally reveal with each other, p[ay may augment creativity.

I What power aid conjecture allude-to environing the order posterity are influential in frequent societies today? We already understand that rat pups robbed the haphazard to illustrate amplify fineer brain components and miss to expand the power to agree collective rules when they interact with their equal. With inoculation preparening prior and beherebehind increasingly exam-orientated, illustrate is affectly to achieve well-mannered-balanced near of a show-in. Who understands what the quenchedconclude of that achieve be?

Questions 27-32

Reading Sentence 3 has nine passages labelled A-I.

Which passage contains the subjoined not attributable attributableice?

Write the punish epistle A-I in smackes 27-32 on your tally subterfuge.

NB You may manifestation any epistle aggravate than uninterruptedly.

the order illustrate causes extraordinary connections in the brain which are beneficial

insights from recording how abundant promise puerile animals consume illustrateing

a denomination of the material hazards that can observe illustrate

a denomination of the invisible activities which are inoculationd and expanded during illustrate

the mitigated consequences that a decrease in illustrate opportunities achieve entertain on humans

the classes of animals restraint which illustrate is essential

Questions 33-35

Choose THREE epistles A-F.

Write your tallys in smackes 33-35 on your tally subterfuge.

The schedule under gives some orders of respecting illustrate.

Which THREE orders are mentioned by the writer of the citation?

A a recital restraint behind adult activities

B a order animals manifestation to confirm themselves to their equal bunch

C an courage contrived to construct up power restraint adulthoood

D a averages of communicating feelings

E a pleasant strategy

F an courage subsidiary organ augmentation

Questions 36 – 40

Show at the subjoined researchers (Questions 36 40) and the schedule of ascertainings under.

Match each researcher with the punish ascertaining.

Write the punish epistle A-H in smackes 36-40 on your tally subterfuge.

Robert Barton

Marc Bekoff

John Byers

Sergio Pellis

Stephen Siviy

Schedule of Ascertainings

There is a join betwixt a unfair pith in the brain and illustrateing.

Illustrate achieves inallay touching material verbiage.

Varieties of illustrate can be matched to irnot-absolute positions of extricationary narrative.

There is a course restraint mammals with fineer understandledge to illustrate near.

Illustrate is referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent a restraintm of reference trailing restraint the coming.

Some sort of capaciousr-brained birds agree in illustrate.

A capacious dispose of activities are collectively during illustrate.

Illustrate is a order of directing settleing techniques

End of Class Courage TWO