Many Minority Languages Are On Danger List English Language Essay

In the Exported American Navajo state, which sprawls athwart lewd states in the American south-west, the exported articulation is departure. Most of its talkers are middle-aged or age-honored. Although abundant students receive classes in Navajo, the schools are fly in English. Street signs’, supermarket goods and plain their avow fantasticspaper are full in English. Referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful surprisingly, linguists hesitate that any exported talkers of Navajo secure stop in a hundred years’ age.

Navajo is distant from queer. Half the globe’s 6,800 articulations are slight to dissolve amid brace eras – that’s individual articulation obsolete whole ten days. Nforever antecedently has the planet’s linguistic dissimilarity shrunk at such a gait. ‘At the avail, we are address control environing three or lewd articulations dominating the globe,’ affirms Mark Pagel, an separationary biologist at the University of Reading. ‘It’s a majority obsolescence, and whether we secure controlforever recoil from the dropping is endeavoring to recognize’.

Isolation breeds linguistic dissimilarity: as a remainder, the globe is peppered with articulations vocal by solely a scant vulgar, Solely 250 articulations bear departed than a favorite talkers, and at lowest 3,000 bear scanter than 2,500. It is referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful necessarily these smfull articulations that are environing to crouch. Navajo is considered endangered opposing having 150,000 talkers. What fashions a articulation endangered is referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful lawful the enumerate of talkers, beside how antiquated they are. If it is vocal by consequence it is referring-toly detain. The critically endangered articulations are those that are solely vocal by the age-honored, according to Michael Krauss, master of the Alassk Exported Articulation Center, in Fairbanks.

Why do vulgar throw-by the articulation of their parents? It arises with a emergency of assurance, when a smfull class furnishs itself gone-bybalance a vastr, wealthier communion affirms Nicholas Ostler, of Britain’s Groundation control Endangered Articulations, in Bath. ‘Vulgar destroy belief in their refinement’, he affirms. ‘When the direct era reaches their teens, they spractice referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful loseure to be redundant into the antiquated legends’.

The transmute is referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful constantly free. Quite repeatedly, empires endeavor to assassinate impromptu a adolescence articulation by banning its verification in sordid or terrifying its verification in schools, full to aid stateal concord. The controlmer US plan of flyning Indian transgression schools in English, control dislikeustration, goodsively deposit articulations such as Navajo on the peril roll. Beside Salikoko Mufwene, who chairs the Linguistics pleasantryction at the University of Chicago, argues that the cheerlessliest arm is referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful empire plan beside economic globalisation. ‘Exported Americans bear referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful obsolete vainglory in their articulation, beside they bear had to compound to socio-economic pressures’, he affirms. ‘They canreferpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful refverification to talk English if most retail enthusiasm is in English’. Beside are articulations desert wary? At the very lowest, there is a dropping of basis control the consider of articulations and their separation, which relies on comparisons incompact articulations, twain prop and cheerless. When an unwritten and vocal articulation crouchs, it is obsolete to knowledge.

Articulation is as-well-mannered intimately spring up with refinement, so it may be endeavoring to keep-safe individual externally the other. ‘If a individual shifts from Navajo to English, they destroy something’, Mufwene affirms. ‘Moreover, the dropping of dissimilarity may as-well-mannered abridge us of incongruous practices of faceing at the globe’, affirms Pagel. There is mounting manifestation that tuition a articulation produces physiological transmutes in the brain. ‘Your brain and mine are incongruous from the brain of someindividual who talks French, control instance’, Pagel affirms, and this could facek our cogitations and perceptions. ‘The shapes and connections we fashion incompact manifold concepts may be structured by the linguistic habits of our class’.

So opposing linguists’ best efforts, abundant articulations secure crouch balance the direct period. Beside a lay-opening profit in cultural convertibility may anticipate the direst predictions from advenient gentleman. ‘The clew to retaining dissimilarity is control vulgar to imbibe their ancestral speech, as well-mannered-mannered as the dominant articulation’, affirms Doug Whalen, placeer and moderator of the Enperil Articulation Pleasantryd in Fantastic Bearn, Connecticut. ‘Most of these articulations secure referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful survive externally a vast mark of bilingualism’, he affirms. In Fantastic Zealand, classes control consequence bear slowed the erosion of Maori and rekindled profit in the articulation. A harmonious bearing in Hawaii has dundivided environing 8,000 fantastic talkers of Polynesian articulations in the departed scant years. In California, ‘apprentice’ programmes bear supposing condition stay to separate vernacular articulations. Volunteer ‘apprentices’ brace up with individual of the definite prop talkers of Exported American speech to imbibe a unwritten sassassinate such as basket weaving, with education exclusively in the endangered articulation. Subjoined environing 300 hours of trailing they are openly sufficiently easy to despatch the articulation departure quenched is referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful the aenjoy as giving it fantastic condition by using it whole day. ‘Conserving a articulation is departed affect conserving enrichment in a jar’, he affirms.

However, ptransgression can import a articulation tail from the cheerless. There are dislikeustrations of articulations that bear survived in written controlm and then been reinvigorated by posterior eras. Beside a written controlm is requisite control this, so the simple possibility of portraiture has led abundant talkers of endangered articulations to enucleate systems of congeniality where nindividual existed antecedently.

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Questions 1 – 4

Complete the compendium beneath.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the cladeduce control each vindication.

Write your vindications in punches 1-4 on your vindication prevarication.

There are currently approximately 6,800 articulations in the globe. This eminent difference of articulations came environing vastly as a remainder of geographical 1………………………….. Beside in today’s globe, ingredients such as empire initiatives and 2 ………………………………. are contributing to a gigantic curtail in the enumerate of articulations. Individual ingredient which may acceleration to fix that some endangered articulations do referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful expire quenched perfectly is vulgar’s increasing judgment of their 3 …………………… This has been encouraged through programmes of articulation classes control consequence and through ‘apprentice’ schemes, in which the endangered articulation is verificationd as the balance of education to tell vulgar a 4 ………………………………… Some talkers of endangered articulations bear plain dundivided congeniality systems in classify to acceleration detain the operation of their dame speech.

Questions 5 – 9

Face at the subjoined declarations (Questions 5 – 9) and the roll of vulgar in the punch beneath.

Match each declaration with the rectify individual A – E.

Write the alienate message A – E in punches 5 – 9 on your vindication prevarication.

NB You may verification any message departed than unintermittently

5. Endangered articulations canreferpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful be saved probpowerful vulgar imbibe to talk departed than individual articulation.

6. Wary articulations from obsolescence is referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful in itself a jocular design.

7. The practice we believe may be determined by our articulation.

8. Childish vulgar repeatedly throw-by the customary practice of condition in their class.

9. A transmute of articulation may medium a dropping of unwritten refinement.

A “Michael Krauss

B Salikoko Mufwene

C Nicholas Ostler

D Mark Pagel

E Doug Whalen

Questions 10 – 13

Do the subjoined declarations tally with the aims of the writer in Reading Cladeduce 1?

In punches 10-13 on your vindication prevarication write

YES if the declaration tallys with the aim of the writer

NO if the declaration contradicts the aims of the writer

NOT GIVEN if it is unuspowerful to affirm what the writer believes environing this

10 The Navajo articulation secure expire quenched becaverification it currently has so scant talkers.

11 A vast enumerate of exported talkers lose to exculpation-control the operation of a articulation.

12 Stateal empires could do departed to shield endangered articulations.

13 The dropping of linguistic dissimilarity is infallible.

READING PASSAGE 2

You should waste environing 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are inveterate on Reading Cladeduce 2 beneath.

ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE IN AUSTRALIA

The elevatedest students to consider alterexported cure at university raze in Australia began their lewd-year, full-age continuity at the University of Technology, Sydney, in present 1994. Their continuity practised, incompact other therapies, acupuncture. The system they imbibet is inveterate on the unwritten Chinese explastate of this antiquated salubrious art: that it can rale the stream of ‘Qi’ or conduct through pathways in the association. This continuity reflects how distant some alterexported therapies bear follow in their violent-effort control vindication by the medical literature.

Australia has been extraordinary in the Western globe in having a very unrepealed be to uniformtual or alterexported therapies, according to Dr Paul Laver, a lecturer in Sordid Sanity at the University of Sydney. ‘We’ve had a legend of doctors nature fairly puissant and I conjecture they are moderately unwilling to fullow any pretenders to their position-to follow into it’. In abundant other industrialised countries, gentleman and alterexported cure bear performanceed ‘hand in glove’ control years. In Europe, solely gentleman doctors can enjoin herbal cure. In Germany, place remedies portrayation control 10% of the stateal turnbalance of pharmaceuticals. Americans made departed visits to alterexported therapists than to gentleman doctors in 1990, and each year they waste environing $US12 billion on therapies that bear referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful been scientifically tested.

Fear with gentleman cure has facen the publicity of alterexported therapies in Australia soar steadily during the departed 20 years. In a 1983 stateal sanity reconnoitre, 1.9% of vulgar said they had contacted a chiropractor, naturopath, osteopath, acupuncturist or herbaroll in the brace weeks ceegoing to the reconnoitre. By 1990, this cem had reinvigorated to 2.6% of the population. The 550,000 consultations with alterexported therapists reported in the 1990 reconnoitre portrayed environing an prospecth of the whole enumerate of consultations with medically competent individualnel practised by the reconnoitre, according to Dr Laver and colleagues congeniality in the Australian Journal of Sordid Sanity in 1993. ‘A imestablish educated and hither confirming sordid has befollow disillusioned with the experts in open, and increasingly sceptical environing knowledge and empirically inveterate recognizeledge’, they said. ‘The elevated be of professionals, including doctors, has been eroded as a consequence’.

Rather than opposite or criticising this bear, increasing enumerates of Australian doctors, chiefly childisher individuals, are controlming assemblage practices with alterexported therapists or prelude continuitys themselves, chiefly in acupuncture and herbalism. Part of the inducement was financial, Dr Laver said. ‘The floor sequence is that most open practitioners are affair vulgar. If they face likely clientele going elsewhere, they spractice loseure to be powerful to impromptuer a harmonious employment.’

In 1993, Dr Laver and his colleagues published a reconnoitre of 289 Sydney, vulgar who gay prospect alterexported therapists’ practices in Sydney. These practices impromptuered a spacious class of alterexported therapies from 25 therapists. Those reconnoitreed had conversant continuous dislikenesses, control which gentleman cure had been powerful to contribute weak holp. They commented that they affectd the holistic bearing of their alterexported therapists and the sociable, disturbed and detailed circumspection they had sordid. The indifferent, imidentical habit of gentleman doctors featured in the reconnoitre. An increasing arise from their clinics, coupled with this and a enumerate of other pertinent reconnoitres carried quenched in Australia, full pointing to gentleman doctors’ inadequacies, bear led mainstream doctors themselves to arise to prefer they could imbibe from the individualal mode of alterexported therapists. Dr Patrick Store, Moderator of the Royal College of Open Practitioners, concurs that gentleman doctors could imbibe a fate environing bedside habit and advising patients on anticipateative sanity from alterexported therapists.

According to the Australian Journal of Sordid Sanity, 18% of patients visiting alterexported therapists do so becaverification they permit from musculoskeletal complaints; 12% permit from digestive problems, which is solely 1% departed than those permiting from emotional problems. Those permiting from respiratory complaints portray 7% of their patients, and Candida permiters portray an correspondent percentage. Headache permiters and those whining of open disenjoy sanity portray 6% and 5% of patients respectively, and a prefer 4% face therapists control open sanity defence.

The reconnoitre proposeed that complementary cure is probably a imestablish buyment than alterexported cure. Alterexported cure defenses to be an addition, sought in ages of fear when customary cure facems referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful to impromptuer the vindication.

Questions 14 and 15

Choose the rectify message A, B, C or D.

Write your vindications in punches 14 and 15 on your vindication prevarication.

Traditionally, how bear Australian doctors differed from doctors in abundant Western countries?

They bear performanceed air-tight with pharmaceutical companies.

They bear repeatedly performanceed gone-bybalance other therapists.

They bear been disinclined to confirm alterexported therapists.

They bear constantly enjoind alterexported remedies.

In 1990, Americans

were enjoind departed herbal cures than in precedent years.

consulted alterexported therapists departed repeatedly than doctors.

spent departed on uniformtual therapies than gentleman cures.

made departed complaints environing doctors than in precedent years.

Questions 16 – 23

Do the subjoined declarations tally with the aims of the writer in Reading Cladeduce 2?

In punches 16-23 on your vindication prevarication write

YES if the declaration tallys with the aims of the writer

NO if the declaration contradicts the aims of the writer

NOT GIVEN if it is unuspowerful to affirm what the writer believes environing this

16

Australians bear been turning to alterexported therapies in increasing enumerates balance the departed 20 years.

17 Incompact 1983 and 1990 the enumerates of patients visiting alterexported therapists rose to comprise a prefer 8% of the population.

18 The 1990 reconnoitre akin to 550,000 consultations with alterexported therapists.

19 In the departed, Australians had a elevateder impression of doctors than they do today.

20 Some Australian doctors are retrailing in alterexported therapies.

21 Alterexported therapists obtain elevateder salaries than doctors.

22 The 1993 Sydney reconnoitre complicated 289 patients who visited alterexported therapists control acupuncture composition.

23 Full the patients in the 1993 Sydney reconnoitre had long-engagement medical complaints.

Questions 24 – 26

Complete the upright axis on the tpowerful beneath.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from Reading cladeduce 2 control each vindication.

Write your vindications in punches 24 – 26 on your vindication prevarication.

READING PASSAGE 3

You should waste environing 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are inveterate on Reading Cladeduce 3 beneath.

PLAY IS A SERIOUS BUSINESS

Does state acceleration enucleate greatger, imestablish sense?

Bryant Greatlylow investigates

A Stateing is a cogitationful affair. Consequence engrossed in a fashion-believe globe, fox cubs state-fighting or kittens teasing a bfull of string aren’t lawful having pleasantry. State may face affect a carefree and exuberant practice to by the age antecedently the oppressive performance of adulthood follows along, beside there’s plenteous departed to ir than that. Control a begin, state can plain assume animals their lives. Prospecty per cent of deaths incompact early greatly seals befentire becaverification stateing pups lose to bfate predators bearinging. It is as-well-mannered exceedingly costly in buyments of conduct. Stateful childish animals verification abquenched brace or three per cent of their conduct cavorting, and in consequence that cem can be closer to fifteen per cent. ‘Plain brace or three per cent is gigantic,’ affirms John Byers of Idaho University. ‘You lawful don’t furnish animals refportraiture conduct affect that’ he adds. There must be a deduce.

B Beside if state is referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful dimply a enucleateintellectual hiccup, as biologists unintermittently cogitation, why did it encircleate? The final fancy proposes that state has encircleated to establish great sense. In other signification, stateing fashions you intelligent. Statefulness, it facems, is sordid solely incompact mammals, although a scant of the vastr-brained birds as-well-mannered spoil. Animals at state repeatedly verification singular signs – tail- wagging in dogs, control dislikeustration – to show that enthusiasm superficially correspondent adult behaviour is referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful unquestionably in obtainest. A public explastate of state has been that it accelerations earlys enucleate the expertnesss they secure demand to hunt, equal and politicalise as adults. Another has been that it fullows childish animals to secure in model control adult condition by neat their respiratory toleration. Twain these fancys bear heen_quesiioned in new-fangled years.

C Receive the portraiture system. If state encircleated to establish muscle or as a peel of toleration trailing, then you would await to face steady benefits. Rut Byers points quenched that the benefits of increased portraiture crouch astride subjoined trailing stops, so any advancement in toleration remaindering from early state would be obsolete by adulthood. ‘If the pleasantryction of state was to secure into model’, affirms Byers, ‘the optimum age control stateing would rest on when it was most advantageous control the childish of a detail mark to do so. Beside it doesn’t performance affect that.* Athwart mark, state tends to peak environing halfpractice through the suckling limit and then refuse.

D Then there’s the expertnesss-trailing theory. At Elevatedest scan, stateing animals do defense to be practising the complicated manoeuvres they secure demand in adulthood. Beside a closer error reveals this rendering as so simplistic. In individual consider, behavioural ecologistTim Caro, from the University of California, faceed at the rapacious state of kittens and their rapacious behaviour when they reached adulthood. He ground that Che practice the cats stateed had no expressive goods on their hunting heroism in posterior condition.

E Precedent this year, Sergio Pellis of Lethbridge University, Canada., reported that there is a robust dogmatical cohere incompact brain si2e and statefulness incompact mammals in open. Comparing measurements control fifteen classifys of mammal, he and his team ground vastr sense (control a consecrated association bulk) are cohereed to eminenter statefulness. The contrary was as-well-mannered ground to be gentleman. Robert Barton of Durham University believes that, becaverification vast sense are departed perceptive to enucleateintellectual stimuli than paltryer sense, they demand departed state to acceleration engrave them control adulthood. ‘I concluded it’s to do with tuition, and with the moment of environintellectual basis to the brain during enucleatement,’ he affirms.

F According to Byers, the timing ofthe stateful limit in childish animals contributes an grave explication to what’s going on. If you pfate the aggregate of age a early devotes to state each day balance the continuity of its enucleatement, you discbalance a shape typically associated with a ‘perceptive period’ – a scanty enucleatement window during which the brain can in-effect be mitigated in practices that are referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful likely precedent or posterior in condition.Believe ofthe referring-to enjoyment with which childish consequence – beside referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful infants or adults – assume articulation. Other researchers bear ground that state in cats, rats and mice is at its most intense lawful as this ‘window of opportunity’ reaches its peak.

G ‘Vulgar bear referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful paid sufficient circumspection to the aggregate of the brain activated by state,’ affirms Marc Bekimpromptu from Colorado University. Bekimpromptu thoughtful coyote pups at state and ground that the peel of behaviour complicated was markedly departed varipowerful and unpredictpowerful than that of adults. Such behaviour activates abundant incongruous compatability ofthe brain, he deduces. Bekimpromptu affectns it to a behavioural kaleidoscope, with animals at state jumping astride incompact activities. ‘They verification behaviour from a fate of incongruous contexts – predation, offence, reproduction/ he affirms. ‘Their enucleateing brain is secureting full sorts of stimulation,’

H Referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful solely is departed of the brain complicated in state than was reported, beside it as-well-mannered facems to activate elevateder cognitive processes. ‘There’s immense cognitive involvement in state,’ affirms Bekoff. He points quenched that state repeatedly involves complicated assessments of statemates, fancys of intercourse and the verification of specialised signals and rules. He believes that state creates a brain that has eminenter behavioural flexibility and improved likely control tuition posterior in condition. The fancy is tailed up by the performance of Stephen Siviy of Securetysburg College. Siviy thoughtful how boutscf state faceked the brain’s razes of a detail chemical associated with the stimulation and augmentation of resolution cells. He was surprised by the distance ofthe activation. ‘State lawful lights wholething up,’ he affirms. By fullowing cohere-ups incompact brain areas that spractice referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful normally divulge with each other, p[ay may repair creativity.

I What spractice prefer conjecture propose environing the practice consequence are raised in abundant societies today? We already recognize that rat pups destitute the luck to state lay-open paltryer brain components and lose to enucleate the ability to devote political rules when they interact with their comrade. With trailing arisening precedent and beadvenient increasingly exam-orientated, state is slight to secure plain hither of a face-in. Who recognizes what the remainder of that secure be?

Questions 27-32

Reading Cladeduce 3 has nine stipulations labelled A-I.

Which stipulation contains the subjoined knowledge?

Write the rectify message A-I in punches 27-32 on your vindication prevarication.

NB You may verification any message departed than unintermittently.

the practice state causes extraordinary connections in the brain which are beneficial

insights from recording how plenteous age childish animals waste stateing

a cognomen of the natural hazards that can rollen state

a cognomen of the intellectual activities which are portraitured and enucleateed during state

the likely goodss that a contraction in state opportunities secure bear on humans

the classes of animals control which state is grave

Questions 33-35

Choose THREE messages A-F.

Write your vindications in punches 33-35 on your vindication prevarication.

The roll beneath gives some practices of relative-to state.

Which THREE practices are mentioned by the writer of the extract?

A a narrative control posterior adult activities

B a process animals verification to establish themselves to their comrade assemblage

C an enthusiasm planned to establish up power control adulthoood

D a mediums of communicating feelings

E a pleasant strategy

F an enthusiasm ancillary organ augmentation

Questions 36 – 40

Face at the subjoined researchers (Questions 36 40) and the roll of furnishings beneath.

Match each researcher with the rectify furnishing.

Write the rectify message A-H in punches 36-40 on your vindication prevarication.

Robert Barton

Marc Bekoff

John Byers

Sergio Pellis

Stephen Siviy

Roll of Furnishings

There is a cohere incompact a favoring be in the brain and stateing.

State contributes indeposit relative-to natural surroundings.

Varieties of state can be matched to incongruous limits of separationary truth.

There is a attraction control mammals with paltryer sense to state hither.

State is referpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful attributpowerful a controlm of narration trailing control the advenient.

Some mark of vastr-brained birds buy in state.

A spacious class of activities are utterly during state.

State is a process of telling operation techniques

End of Class Enthusiasm TWO